Tuesday, February 3, 2015

30 Recent PUBMED Citations on the topic "Real World Evidence"

About 30, only lightly-selected hits from PUBMED on the topic "real world evidence."


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Citations first.
Citations with abstract, below.


Horn EJ, Terry SF.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers. 2012 Feb;16(2):75-6. doi: 10.1089/gtmb.2012.1528. No abstract available.
PMID:
 
22335828
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
2.
Epstein RS, Sidorov J, Lehner JP, Salimi T.
J Comp Eff Res. 2012 Jan;1(1 Suppl):9-13. doi: 10.2217/cer.11.3.
PMID:
 
24237317
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
3.
Salimi T, Lehner JP, Epstein RS, Tunis SR.
J Comp Eff Res. 2012 Jan;1(1 Suppl):3-7. doi: 10.2217/cer.11.2.
PMID:
 
24237316
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
4.
Leonard DT.
Am J Manag Care. 2010 Jun;16(6):410-1. No abstract available.
PMID:
 
20560684
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free Article
5.
Landells I, Searles G, Bissonnette R, Shear NH, Vender R, Lui H.
J Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Dec;13 Suppl 3:S122-30.
PMID:
 
20053324
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6.
Bissonnette R, Searles G, Landells I, Shear NH, Papp K, Lui H, Gulliver WP, Lynde C.
J Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Dec;13 Suppl 3:S113-21.
PMID:
 
20053323
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
7.
Searles G, Bissonnette R, Landells I, Shear NH.
J Cutan Med Surg. 2009 Dec;13 Suppl 3:S107-12. Review. No abstract available.
PMID:
 
20053322
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8.
Luce BR, Paramore LC, Parasuraman B, Liljas B, de Lissovoy G.
Am J Manag Care. 2008 Mar;14(3):149-56.
PMID:
 
18333707
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free Article
9.
Paterson JM, Laupacis A, Bassett K, Anderson GM; BC-Ontario Pharmacosurveillance for Decision-Making Collaborative.
Health Aff (Millwood). 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):1436-43.
PMID:
 
16966744
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free Article
10.
Schubert F.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2002 Spring;18(2):184-91.
PMID:
 
12053418
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11.
Kruep EJ, Goodwin BB, Chaudhari S.
Am J Mens Health. 2013 May;7(3):214-9. doi: 10.1177/1557988312469245. Epub 2012 Dec 6.
PMID:
 
23221685
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
12.
Gradman AH, Parisé H, Lefebvre P, Falvey H, Lafeuille MH, Duh MS.
Hypertension. 2013 Feb;61(2):309-18. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.201566. Epub 2012 Nov 26.
PMID:
 
23184383
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free Article
13.
Price D, Asukai Y, Ananthapavan J, Malcolm B, Radwan A, Keyzor I.
Appl Health Econ Health Policy. 2013 Jun;11(3):259-74. doi: 10.1007/s40258-013-0021-5.
PMID:
 
23529714
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free PMC Article
14.
Brown JS, Kahn M, Toh S.
Med Care. 2013 Aug;51(8 Suppl 3):S22-9. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31829b1e2c.
PMID:
 
23793049
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free PMC Article
15.
Fortuna D, Nicolini F, Guastaroba P, De Palma R, Di Bartolomeo S, Saia F, Pacini D, Grilli R; RERIC (Regional Registry of Cardiac Surgery); REAL (Regional Registry of Coronary Angioplasties) Investigators.
Eur J Cardiothorac Surg. 2013 Jul;44(1):e16-24. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezt197. Epub 2013 Apr 28.
PMID:
 
23628951
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
16.
Carroll S, Gater A, Abetz-Webb L, Smith F, Demuth D, Mannan A.
BMC Res Notes. 2013 Nov 25;6:486. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-486.
PMID:
 
24274819
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free PMC Article
17.
Campbell JD, McQueen RB, Briggs A.
Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2014 Feb;11 Suppl 2:S105-11. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201309-295RM.
PMID:
 
24559022
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
18.
Taylor J, Patrick H, Lyratzopoulos G, Campbell B.
Int J Technol Assess Health Care. 2014 Jan;30(1):28-33. doi: 10.1017/S0266462313000731.
PMID:
 
24622602
 
[PubMed - in process]
19.
Ascher-Svanum H, Lage MJ, Perez-Nieves M, Reaney MD, Lorraine J, Rodriguez A, Treglia M.
Diabetes Ther. 2014 Jun;5(1):225-42. doi: 10.1007/s13300-014-0065-z. Epub 2014 Apr 30.
20.
Girman CJ, Faries D, Ryan P, Rotelli M, Belger M, Binkowitz B, O'Neill R; Drug Information Association CER Scientific Working Group.
J Comp Eff Res. 2014 May;3(3):259-70. doi: 10.2217/cer.14.16.
PMID:
 
24969153
 

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1.
2.
 2012 Jan;1(1 Suppl):9-13. doi: 10.2217/cer.11.3.

Integrating scientific and real-world evidence within and beyond the drug development process.

Abstract

Newly developed healthcare treatments face a complex environment with many stakeholders who can accelerate or decelerate adoption, most notably the healthcare system payers. Understanding and integrating their needs earlier in clinical development will ensure a smoother transition from bench to bedside. This paper describes a new approach to shaping a more effective complementary process of 'value' evidence generation both in and outside the clinical drug development process. We propose that biopharmaceutical companies consider bringing new solutions to market by marshaling cross-functional approaches to what we term an evidence-definition phase, evidence-generation phase and evidence-translation phase to drug and technology research and development. The organization of ongoing discovery, evaluation and translation with a 'real- world' perspective should provide a more streamlined approach to ensure both regulatory and eventual marketplace success.
PMID:
 
24237317
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
3.
 2012 Jan;1(1 Suppl):3-7. doi: 10.2217/cer.11.2.

A framework for pharmaceutical value-based innovations.

Abstract

The rapidity of change and increasing complexity of today's healthcare environment dictates that pharmaceutical companies refine their drug development process to ensure that products provide maximal value to consumers. Innovation should receive the support and encouragement it deserves but the balance between cost of therapy and enhanced benefits to the end users, the patients, must not be compromised. The health or quality-of-life outcomes that therapies are likely to achieve need to be clearly stated for patients so they know what to expect before beginning treatment. A drug development program that incorporates principles of 'patient-centered medicine' early on can help define the true value of a health technology. This demands not only demonstrating value as measured by actual patient experience and patient-reported outcomes, but understanding the unmet needs of multiple stakeholders: what is their perception of what represents value? What factors impact healthcare coverage decisions? In this paper, we describe an illustrative framework designed to weave 'patient-centric' medical and real-world evidence into the phases of research and development. This evidence and value development framework works iteratively, providing useful insights parallel to product development from early phase to life-cycle management while forming a progressive evidence chain throughout the phases of research and development. This in turn leads to the creation of value-based innovation with robust foundational evidence for clinical decisions, postlaunch coverage and reimbursement evaluations.
PMID:
 
24237316
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
5.
 2009 Dec;13 Suppl 3:S122-30.

Efficacy outcomes in patients using alefacept in the AWARE study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alefacept has demonstrated efficacy in clinical trials of patients with chronic plaque psoriasis, either as monotherapy or combined with other treatment modalities such as phototherapy.

OBJECTIVE:

AWARE (Amevive Wisdom Acquired from Real-World Evidence) is a multicenter, observational, phase IV Canadian registry of psoriasis patients treated with alefacept.

METHODS:

Patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were treated with at least one course of alefacept, either alone or added on to their existing antipsoriatic treatment regimen. Each course of alefacept was followed by a period of at least 12 weeks off treatment. Efficacy outcomes included physicians' and patients' assessments of response at week 18, as well as change in percent body surface area (BSA) involvement with psoriasis. The time to retreatment was assessed in patients receiving a second course of alefacept during at least 60 weeks of prospective follow-up.

RESULTS:

The majority of patients received alefacept in combination with other antipsoriatic therapies. Physicians' and patients' assessments of response at 18 weeks showed that 42% and 41% of patients, respectively, had a "cleared to marked response" and a further 42% had a "moderate to some response." Among those patients whose psoriasis was moderately controlled or not controlled at baseline, 49 to 51% and 33 to 36%, respectively, improved to "cleared to marked response" at 18 weeks. A substantial shift in percent BSA involvement with psoriasis was observed at 18 weeks, with 55% of patients having a BSA involvement of < 10% at week 18 compared to only 20% having this level of BSA involvement at baseline. The mean time to retreatment among the 60% of patients who received a second course of alefacept was 19.3 weeks (range 2-47 weeks).

CONCLUSION:

A single course of alefacept therapy improved outcomes in this broad population of real-world chronic plaque psoriasis patients.

STUDY LIMITATIONS:

The limitations of this study include its nonrandomized, noncontrolled, noncomparative design, which allowed multiple different treatment approaches across all patients. The rating scales used in this study have not been previously validated, and ranges were assigned to baseline control and response data that are not specifically defined. Clinicians did not receive specific training in using these scales; therefore, interrater variability could not be assessed.
PMID:
 
20053324
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
6.
 2009 Dec;13 Suppl 3:S113-21.

The AWARE study: methodology and baseline characteristics.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Alefacept was the first biologic therapy approved by Health Canada for the treatment of moderate to severe chronic plaque psoriasis and is used either alone or as part of combination therapy.

OBJECTIVE:

AWARE (Amevive Wisdom Acquired from Real-World Evidence) is a multicenter, observational phase IV Canadian study of psoriasis patients treated with alefacept. This study's main goals were to develop a shared, real-time, national clinical database to support best practice and optimize the care of patients receiving alefacept and to gain an understanding of how alefacept is used in Canadian clinical practice. Baseline patient demographic data are described herein.

METHODS:

Patients with chronic plaque psoriasis were enrolled from 37 clinics across Canada. Subjects received at least one course of alefacept treatment followed by a period of at least 12 weeks off treatment and were prospectively followed for at least 60 weeks. Baseline assessments included patient demographics, relevant medical history, psoriasis and treatment history, reasons for initiating alefacept, enrolling physician's initial alefacept treatment plan and strategy, percent body surface area (BSA) involvement with psoriasis, and physician's baseline assessment of disease control. Subsequent assessments at each follow-up visit included the patient's response and the physician's assessment.

RESULTS:

A total of 426 adult patients with predominantly chronic plaque psoriasis, with or without other types of psoriasis, were enrolled into the AWARE registry. Patients generally had moderate to severe psoriasis, with more than half (55.8%) having little or no disease control at baseline as assessed by their clinician, and 77% had > 10% BSA involvement with psoriasis. All patients in the AWARE patient population were receiving one or more treatments for psoriasis prior to or at the time of enrolment, and the majority continued to receive concomitant treatments at the time of study enrolment.

CONCLUSION:

The AWARE registry enrolled a broad group of real-world patients with chronic plaque psoriasis treated with alefacept in clinical practices across Canada.
PMID:
 
20053323
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
8.
 2008 Mar;14(3):149-56.

Can managed care organizations partner with manufacturers for comparative effectiveness research?

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To describe 2 published pragmatic or practical clinical trials (PCTs) as case studies illustrating successful partnerships between managed care organizations (MCOs) and pharmaceutical manufacturers.

STUDY DESIGN:

In today's environment, there is increasing concern about the comparative effectiveness of medical interventions. Various opinion leaders and stakeholders lament the dearth of such evidence and are calling for the public and private sectors to invest up to billions of dollars to create better comparative evidence.

METHODS:

We selected 2 PCTs conducted at different points in the drug life cycle to highlight strengths, limitations, and policy implications. The phase IV study compared fluoxetine hydrochloride vs 2 generic tricyclic antidepressants in selected primary care clinics of a health maintenance organization from 1992 through 1994. The phase IIIb study compared daily budesonide via dry powder inhaler vs triamcinolone acetonide metered-dose inhaler in adult patients with persistent asthma in 25 MCOs from 1995 through 1998.

RESULTS:

Both PCTs were successfully sponsored and funded by pharmaceutical manufacturers in collaboration with MCOs and provided potentially useful evidence of real-world effectiveness and evidence of value to healthcare decision makers.

CONCLUSIONS:

Industry-sponsored PCTs in managed care are feasible when manufacturer and MCO incentives align and can provide real-world evidence of comparative effectiveness and value for money. These trials can be conducted successfully in the phase IIIb and phase IV environments.
PMID:
 
18333707
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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9.
 2006 Sep-Oct;25(5):1436-43.

Using pharmacoepidemiology to inform drug coverage policy: initial lessons from a two-province collaborative.

Abstract

Prescription drug plan managers seek "real-world" evidence regarding the safety and effectiveness of drugs and drug coverage policies. University-based pharmacoepidemiologists with access to administrative health data can help meet these information needs and, by collaborating with other health plans, exploit variations in plan policy. Canada, with its universal health insurance, public drug benefit plans, and population-based linked health care databases, is an ideal setting for such research. Here we describe our initial experience in collaborating with researchers and drug plan managers in British Columbia and Ontario.
PMID:
 
16966744
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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10.
 2002 Spring;18(2):184-91.

Health technology assessment. The pharmaceutical industry perspective.

Abstract

Increasingly, health technology assessment (HTA) is used to aid decisions on the reimbursement of pharmaceuticals or recommendations for their use. The pharmaceutical industry seeks to work in partnership with HTA agencies; however, this presents a number of challenges. Clinical trials will need to include appropriate measures that capture economic and patient benefits as well as relevant clinical endpoints, and the industry will want to seek international harmonization of the many guidelines for economic evaluation. The problem of demonstrating cost-effectiveness of a product before it is available for use must be addressed, possibly by conditional reimbursement to allow collection of real world evidence. It is also important that reimbursement decision makers minimize bias, play fair, and adhere to the written rules they issue. If the industry fairly demonstrates the value of a product using the best available evidence, HTA agencies should be transparent in the rationale for their recommendations.
PMID:
 
12053418
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
11.
 2013 May;7(3):214-9. doi: 10.1177/1557988312469245. Epub 2012 Dec 6.

Evaluation of recent trends in treatment patterns among men with benign prostatic hyperplasia.

Abstract

Although there is an abundance of evidence regarding clinical efficacy and safety of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment, real-world evidence is lacking for pharmacotherapy utilization and trends. It is unclear how evidence demonstrating the efficacy of combination 5-alpha reductase inhibitors and alpha blockers for improving symptoms and reducing risk of disease progression translates into real-world practice for the treatment of BPH. A retrospective study of a database was conducted to describe pharmacotherapy utilization/trends in the treatment of BPH among patients in the managed care setting. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, the final sample size was 107,038. The proportion of patients with BPH receiving 5-alpha reductase inhibitors therapy increased (21.1% in 2003 to 30.5% in 2007), as did the proportion receiving combination therapy (10.7% and 16.1%, respectively). We observed an almost 50% increase in 5-alpha reductase inhibitors use over 5 years and a 60% increase in the use of combination 5-alpha reductase inhibitors/alpha blockers therapy.
PMID:
 
23221685
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for HighWire
12.
 2013 Feb;61(2):309-18. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.112.201566. Epub 2012 Nov 26.

Initial combination therapy reduces the risk of cardiovascular events in hypertensive patients: a matched cohort study.

Abstract

This study evaluated the effects of initial versus delayed treatment with a drug combination on blood pressure (BP) control and the risk of cardiovascular (CV) events in hypertensive patients. Clinical trials suggest that the time to BP control is an important determinant of long-term outcomes, but real-world evidence is scarce. Using electronic medical charts (2005-2009), we retrospectively analyzed 1762 adult patients with BP elevation initiating combination therapy matched 1:1 with similar patients initiating monotherapy and later switched to combination therapy. Incidence rate ratios of CV events (myocardial infarction, stroke/transient ischemic attack, or hospitalization for heart failure) or all-cause death and Kaplan-Meier analyses of time to BP control were compared between cohorts. Hazard ratios indicating the effects of initial treatment on CV events and BP control were estimated using time-varying Cox proportional hazard models. Initial combination therapy was associated with a significant reduction in the risk of CV events or death (incidence rate ratio, 0.66 [95% confidence interval, 0.52-0.84]; P=0.0008). After 6 months of therapy, 40.3% and 32.6% of patients with initial versus delayed combination treatment reached BP control, respectively. Achieving target BP was associated with a statistically significant risk reduction of 23% for CV events or death (hazard ratio, 0.77 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.96]; P=0.0223); the residual effect of initial combination therapy did not reach statistical significance (hazard ratio, 0.84 [95% confidence interval, 0.68-1.03]; P=0.0935). Initial combination therapy was associated with a significant risk reduction of cardiovascular events. More rapid achievement of target BP was found to be the main contributor to the estimated risk reduction.
PMID:
 
23184383
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Free full text
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13.
 2013 Jun;11(3):259-74. doi: 10.1007/s40258-013-0021-5.

A UK-based cost-utility analysis of indacaterol, a once-daily maintenance bronchodilator for patients with COPD, using real world evidence on resource use.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) is a chronic, progressive disease that is not curable. However, there are effective treatments available. In the UK, long-acting bronchodilators are first-line treatments for COPD patients requiring maintenance therapy, and there are several options available. The aim of this study is to establish, from the UK National Health Service (NHS) perspective, the cost-effectiveness profile of indacaterol, the first once-daily long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA), compared with tiotropium and salmeterol, in patients with moderate to severe COPD. In assessing the cost-effectiveness of COPD therapies, this study has the advantage of using real world evidence on the resource use associated with COPD management across the spectrum of the disease.

METHODS:

A Markov model was developed with four health states following the GOLD classification for severity of airflow limitation. The model time horizon was 3 years, and the cycle length was 3 months. From each state, patients could experience a severe or non-severe exacerbation, move to a different COPD state, remain in the current state or die. Transition probabilities were based on data from the indacaterol clinical trials. The majority of the resource use data was taken from the Optimum Patient Care Research Database (OPCRD), which contains data from over 20,000 COPD patients in England and Scotland. Cost data were taken from UK-based sources and published literature and presented for the cost year 2011. Health-related quality of life was the main outcome of interest and utility data for the COPD states were based on data from the indacaterol clinical trials and disutility due to exacerbations were taken from the literature. Both one way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to test the robustness of the results.

RESULTS:

Indacaterol dominated in the comparison with salmeterol producing an incremental QALY gain of 0.008 and cost savings of £110 per patient over a 3-year time horizon. In the comparison with tiotropium over the same time horizon, indacaterol remained the dominant strategy, producing an incremental QALY gain of 0.008 and cost savings of £248 per patient. The one-way sensitivity analysis indicates that the proportion of patients in each of the COPD stages and the mortality rate associated with Very Severe COPD are the variables with the largest impact on the results. The probabilistic sensitivity analyses showed that over 72 % and 89 % of the iterations when compared with salmeterol and tiotropium, respectively, produced dominant results for indacaterol.

CONCLUSION:

The analyses demonstrate that indacaterol dominates both tiotropium and salmeterol in the base case and is likely to remain cost-effective under a range of assumptions.
PMID:
 
23529714
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC3663982
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for SpringerIcon for PubMed Central
14.
 2013 Aug;51(8 Suppl 3):S22-9. doi: 10.1097/MLR.0b013e31829b1e2c.

Data quality assessment for comparative effectiveness research in distributed data networks.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Electronic health information routinely collected during health care delivery and reimbursement can help address the need for evidence about the real-world effectiveness, safety, and quality of medical care. Often, distributed networks that combine information from multiple sources are needed to generate this real-world evidence.

OBJECTIVE:

We provide a set of field-tested best practices and a set of recommendations for data quality checking for comparative effectiveness research (CER) in distributed data networks.

METHODS:

Explore the requirements for data quality checking and describe data quality approaches undertaken by several existing multi-site networks.

RESULTS:

There are no established standards regarding how to evaluate the quality of electronic health data for CER within distributed networks. Data checks of increasing complexity are often used, ranging from consistency with syntactic rules to evaluation of semantics and consistency within and across sites. Temporal trends within and across sites are widely used, as are checks of each data refresh or update. Rates of specific events and exposures by age group, sex, and month are also common.

DISCUSSION:

Secondary use of electronic health data for CER holds promise but is complex, especially in distributed data networks that incorporate periodic data refreshes. The viability of a learning health system is dependent on a robust understanding of the quality, validity, and optimal secondary uses of routinely collected electronic health data within distributed health data networks. Robust data quality checking can strengthen confidence in findings based on distributed data network.
PMID:
 
23793049
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4306391
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for Lippincott Williams & WilkinsIcon for PubMed Central
15.
 2013 Jul;44(1):e16-24. doi: 10.1093/ejcts/ezt197. Epub 2013 Apr 28.

Coronary artery bypass grafting vs percutaneous coronary intervention in a 'real-world' setting: a comparative effectiveness study based on propensity score-matched cohorts.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Most studies comparing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) and percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) showed that fewer patients who had undergone CABG required repeat revascularizations , but no difference in survival, with the exception of some subgroups of patients. However, long-term real-world evidence on patients in whom both procedures are technically feasible is yet not available. The aim of this study was to compare 5-year rates of death, myocardial infarction (MI), target vessel revascularization (TVR) and stroke in a large cohort of patients with left main coronary artery (LMCA) or multivessel disease, treated with CABG or PCI (with or without DES) or PCI with DES only.

METHODS:

Two propensity score (PS)-matched cohorts of patients undergoing revascularization procedures at the regional public and private centres of Emilia-Romagna over the period July 2002-December 2008 were used to compare long-term outcomes of PCI (6246 patients) and CABG (5504 patients).

RESULTS:

PCI was associated with higher risk of death (HR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.4-1.8, P < 0.0001), MI (HR = 3.3; 95% CI 2.7-4.0, P < 0.0001) and TVR (HR = 4.5; 95% CI 3.8-5.2, P < 0.0001) at 5 years. No significant difference was shown for stroke (HR = 1.1; 95% CI 0.9-1.4, P = 0.43). CABG benefit was more evident in the risk of death in patients with two-vessel disease plus LMCA and in those with three-vessel disease, LVEF <35%, congestive heart failure and diabetes. Adjusted comparison with PS between PCI with DES only and CABG confirmed significant differences in favour of CABG for mortality, MI and TVR rates. Competing risk analysis showed that the difference in the mortality rate was due to higher rate of MI in PCI.

CONCLUSIONS:

In the 'real-world' setting of this study, CABG was associated with significantly lower rates of death, MI and TVR in patients with LMCA or multivessel disease, so it remains the standard of care, particularly for patients with more extensive coronary disease and diabetes.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiac surgery; Coronary artery bypass grafting; Percutaneous coronary angioplasty
PMID:
 
23628951
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for HighWire
16.
 2013 Nov 25;6:486. doi: 10.1186/1756-0500-6-486.

Challenges in quantifying the patient-reported burden of herpes zoster and post-herpetic neuralgia in the UK: learnings from the Zoster Quality of Life (ZQOL) study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Acute presentation of herpes zoster (HZ) and the subsequent development of post-herpetic neuralgia (PHN) can have a significant impact on patients' lives. To date, evidence regarding the human and economic burden of HZ and PHN in the UK is limited. To address this knowledge gap a national, multicentre, large-scale real-world study was conducted to inform the scientific community and healthcare decision-makers. This paper outlines difficulties encountered and challenges to conducting real-world studies in the UK, methods used to overcome these hurdles and strategies that can be employed to promote and facilitate the conduct of future studies.

FINDINGS:

The Zoster Quality of Life (ZQOL) study is the first UK-wide and largest observational study investigating patient burden associated with HZ and PHN. A total of 383 patients (229 HZ; 154 PHN) over the age of 50 years were recruited from 42 primary and secondary/tertiary care centres. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) assessments of pain, quality of life and treatment satisfaction were completed by all participants and supplemented by clinical information from participating physicians.Key challenges encountered during the conduct of this study can be broadly categorised as follows: 1) identification of centres willing/able to participate in the study: lack of resources and limited research experience were major barriers to recruitment of centres for participation in the study; 2) obtaining local research & development (R&D) approval: lack of clearly defined processes and requirements specific to real-world studies and limited degree of standardisation between R&D departments in approval procedures led to significant variability in submission requirements and lead times for obtaining approval; 3) recruitment of study participants: rates of recruitment were slower than anticipated, meaning it was necessary to extend the study recruitment period and increase the number of participating centres.

DISCUSSION:

Initiatives designed to promote and facilitate the conduct of research in the UK are important for real-world studies. The ZQOL study shows that opportunities exist for real-word research. However, streamlining the R&D approval process where possible and further incentivising the participation of primary care centres in such studies would help to further facilitate the generation of real-world evidence to inform healthcare decisions.
PMID:
 
24274819
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4222087
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for BioMed CentralIcon for PubMed Central
17.
 2014 Feb;11 Suppl 2:S105-11. doi: 10.1513/AnnalsATS.201309-295RM.

The "e" in cost-effectiveness analyses. A case study of omalizumab efficacy and effectiveness for cost-effectiveness analysis evidence.

Abstract

This article is a call for increased use of real-world evidence in health technology assessment and related policy and decision making. There is currently a disconnect between evidence used to guide regulatory approval of therapies and evidence used to inform therapeutic coverage and reimbursement decisions. Public and private payers need to understand not only whether an intervention works but also whether it offers good value compared with licensed alternatives (not placebo) as they are used in the real-world practice and population (not in a controlled trial environment). Addressing such concerns requires evidence to be drawn from a wide range of study designs, but with consideration and weighting given to their relative strengths and weaknesses, as well as their position on the pragmatic-explanatory (i.e., effectiveness-efficacy) continuum. The potential impact of using different types of evidence to inform cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) is discussed for omalizumab, comparing and contrasting a CEA model informed by an omalizumab efficacy trial to a CEA model drawing primarily on evidence from effectiveness observational studies of omalizumab. There was reasonable agreement between the two omalizumab CEA models, although the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio generated by the effectiveness observational study-driven model was more favorable for omalizumab. Health technology assessment bodies and payers must use their judgment to determine which components of efficacy-based and effectiveness-based CEA evidence are most closely aligned with their goals. For each CEA evidence component, perhaps the two E's form bounds of the truth as well as a fuller picture of the uncertainty surrounding the truth.
PMID:
 
24559022
 
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Icon for Atypon
18.
 2014 Jan;30(1):28-33. doi: 10.1017/S0266462313000731.

Methodological challenges in evaluating the value of registers.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

Procedures and new medical devices are typically introduced into healthcare systems with limited evidence, when they might be ineffective or unsafe. Systematic data collection ("registers") can provide valuable "real world" evidence, but difficulties in funding registers are a major obstacle. A good economic case for the value of registers would therefore be useful.

METHODS:

(i) Literature search on specific purposes of registers. (ii) Surveys (a) of senior clinicians involved with registers, seeking examples of beneficial outcomes, and (b) of administrators, regarding costs of running registers. (iii) A scoping exercise for possible methods to value (financially) the outputs of registers.

RESULTS:

Four main categories of beneficial outcomes from registers were identified. These were-safety and quality assurance; training and quality improvement; complementing trial evidence and reducing uncertainty; and supporting trial research. Explicit examples of all these are presented, together with information about the costs of registers. Combining these with the scoping exercise we present suggestions for a methodology of assessing the value of registers across each of the categories.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study is unique in addressing methods for determining the financial value of registers, based on the amount they cost versus the financial benefits which may result from the evidence generated. Developing the suggested methods could support the case for funding new registers, by showing that their use can benefit healthcare systems through more efficient use of resources, so justifying their costs.
PMID:
 
24622602
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Cambridge University Press
19.
 2014 Jun;5(1):225-42. doi: 10.1007/s13300-014-0065-z. Epub 2014 Apr 30.

Early discontinuation and restart of insulin in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Although the largest improvement in glycemic control occurs within the first 90 days of insulin therapy, little is known about early persistence on insulin therapy. This research aimed to identify predictors of early discontinuation and of subsequent restart of basal or mixture insulin among patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and to assess the economic cost associated with such behaviors over a 1-year period.

METHODS:

Truven's Health Analytics Commercial Claims and Encounters database was utilized for the study. Logistic regressions were used to examine factors associated with early discontinuation of insulin (basal or mixture) and, among patients who discontinued early, the factors associated with restarting. Cost regressions were estimated using generalized linear models with a gamma distribution and logistic link. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to examine time to discontinuation and time to restart among those who discontinued.

RESULTS:

Multivariate analyses revealed that patient characteristics, prior healthcare resource utilization, comorbid diagnoses, and type of initiated insulin were associated with early discontinuation of insulin and of restarting among patients who discontinued early. Acute care (hospitalization and emergency room) costs were 9.6% higher among patients who discontinued early (P < 0.001), although outpatient, drug, and total costs were significantly lower among individuals who discontinued early. Among the early discontinuation subgroup, restarting insulin was associated with higher costs. Specifically: 11.3% higher acute care costs (P < 0.001), 24.0% higher outpatient costs (P < 0.001), 80.2% higher drug costs (P < 0.001), and 30.3% higher total costs (P < 0.001), compared to patients who discontinued early but did not restart insulin therapy in the 1-year post-period.

CONCLUSION:

Among patients with T2DM who were initiated on insulin therapy, early discontinuation of insulin and its subsequent restart were associated with significantly higher acute care costs, which may signal a more complex and challenging subgroup of patients who tend to be less engaged in outpatient care and may have poorer long-term outcomes.
PMID:
 
24782063
 
[PubMed] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4065305
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for SpringerIcon for PubMed Central
20.
 2014 May;3(3):259-70. doi: 10.2217/cer.14.16.

Pre-study feasibility and identifying sensitivity analyses for protocol pre-specification in comparative effectiveness research.

Abstract

The use of healthcare databases for comparative effectiveness research (CER) is increasing exponentially despite its challenges. Researchers must understand their data source and whether outcomes, exposures and confounding factors are captured sufficiently to address the research question. They must also assess whether bias and confounding can be adequately minimized. Many study design characteristics may impact on the results; however, minimal if any sensitivity analyses are typically conducted, and those performed are post hoc. We propose pre-study steps for CER feasibility assessment and to identify sensitivity analyses that might be most important to pre-specify to help ensure that CER produces valid interpretable results.

KEYWORDS:

comparative effectiveness; empirical equipoise; feasibility; observational study; pharmacoepidemiology; sensitivity analysis
PMID:
 
24969153
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Atypon
21.
 2013 Jul;6(6):321-9.

Perspectives of quality care in cancer treatment: a review of the literature.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Approximately 1.7 million Americans are diagnosed with cancer annually. There is an increasing demand for high-quality cancer care; however, what constitutes quality care is not well defined. There remains a gap in our knowledge regarding the current perceptions of what defines quality care.

OBJECTIVE:

To review the current understanding and perspectives of key stakeholders regarding quality cancer care for adult patients with cancer who are receiving chemotherapy-based treatment regimens.

METHODS:

This systematic qualitative literature review involved a search of MEDLINE and PubMed databases for articles that were published between January 2009 and May 2013 using a predefined search strategy with specific Medical Subject Headings terms encompassing 3 core concepts-cancer, chemotherapy, and quality of healthcare. Articles were eligible to be included if they focused on adult cancers, discussed quality indicators of cancer care or quality of care in the article's body, discussed treating cancer with chemotherapy, were conducted in the United States and with US respondents, and reported data about cancer quality that were obtained directly from stakeholders (eg, patients, caregivers, providers, payers, other healthcare professionals). Thematic analyses were conducted to assess the perspectives and the intersection of quality care issues from each stakeholder group that was identified, including patients, providers, and thought leaders.

RESULTS:

The search strategy identified 542 articles that were reviewed for eligibility. Of these articles, 15 were eligible for inclusion in the study and reported perspectives from a total of 4934 participants. Patients with cancer, as well as providers, noted information needs, psychosocial support, responsibility for care, and coordination of care as important aspects of quality care. Providers also reported the importance of equity in cancer care and reimbursement concerns, whereas patients with cancer considered the timeliness of care an important factor. The perspectives of thought leaders focused on barriers to and facilitators of quality care.

CONCLUSION:

Thematic elements related to cancer quality were relatively consistent between patients and providers; no additional information was found regarding payer perspectives. The perspectives of these groups are important to consider as quality initiatives are being developed.
PMID:
 
24991367
 
[PubMed] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4031722
 
Free PMC Article
Icon for PubMed Central
22.
 2014 Aug;12(4):447-59. doi: 10.1007/s40258-014-0107-8.

Cost effectiveness of tiotropium in patients with asthma poorly controlled on inhaled glucocorticosteroids and long-acting β-agonists.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A considerable proportion of patients with asthma remain uncontrolled or symptomatic despite treatment with a high dose of inhaled glucocorticosteroids (ICSs) and long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium Respimat(®) added to usual care improves lung function, asthma control, and the frequency of non-severe and severe exacerbations, in a population of adult asthma patients who are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA.

OBJECTIVE:

This study estimated the cost effectiveness of tiotropium therapy as add-on to usual care in asthma patients that are uncontrolled despite treatment with ICS/LABA combination from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS).

METHODS:

A Markov model was developed which considers levels of asthma control and exacerbations. The model analysed cost and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs); sensitivity and scenario analyses were also conducted to test the robustness of the base case outcomes. All costs are given at 2012 prices.

RESULTS:

The model found that in this category of asthma with unmet need, add-on tiotropium therapy generated an incremental 0.24 QALYs and £5,238 costs over a lifetime horizon, resulting in an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of £21,906 per QALY gained. Sensitivity analysis suggested that findings were most dependent on the costs of managing uncontrolled asthma and the cost of treatment with tiotropium.

CONCLUSION:

In this modelled analysis of two clinical trials, tiotropium was found to be cost effective when added to usual care in patients who remain uncontrolled despite treatment with high-dose ICS/LABA. Further research should investigate the long-term treatment effectiveness of tiotropium.
PMID:
 
24974107
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Springer
25.
 2014 Sep;28(3):294-304. doi: 10.3109/15360288.2014.941131. Epub 2014 Aug 19.

Real-world evidence in pain research: a review of data sources.

Abstract

Outcomes research studies use clinical and administrative data generated in the course of patient care or from patient surveys to examine the effectiveness of treatments. Health care providers need to understand the limitations and strengths of the real-world data sources used in outcomes studies to meaningfully use the results. This paper describes five types of databases commonly used in the United States for outcomes research studies, discusses their strengths and limitations, and provides examples of each within the context of pain treatment. The databases specifically discussed are generated from (1) electronic medical records, which are created from patient-provider interactions; (2) administrative claims, which are generated from providers' and patients' transactions with payers; (3) integrated health systems, which are generated by systems that provide both clinical care and insurance benefits and typically represent a combination of electronic medical record and claims data; (4) national surveys, which provide patient-reported responses about their health and behaviors; and (5) patient registries, which are developed to track patients with a given disease or exposure over time for specified purposes, such as population management, safety monitoring, or research.

KEYWORDS:

databases; observational studies; outcomes research; pain; treatment
PMID:
 
25136897
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Informa Healthcare
26.
 2014 Nov;20(11):853-63. doi: 10.1016/j.cardfail.2014.08.006. Epub 2014 Aug 21.

Is addition of vasodilators to loop diuretics of value in the care of hospitalized acute heart failure patients? Real-world evidence from a retrospective analysis of a large United States hospital database.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Current guidelines recommend the use of intravenous (IV) vasodilators in addition to IV loop diuretics for the treatment of acute heart failure (AHF) patients without hypotension. The evidence basis for these recommendations is limited.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Hospital billing records for 82,808 AHF patients in the United States were analyzed. Patients receiving IV loop diuretics alone were paired with patients receiving IV loop diuretics + IV nitrates or IV nesiritide with the use of propensity score matching, excluding those with hypotension and/or evidence of cardiogenic shock, myocardial infarction, or acute coronary syndrome. Compared with paired patients receiving IV loop diuretics alone, in-hospital mortality was similar among IV loop diuretics + IV nitrates patients (n = 4,401; 1.9% vs 2.0%; P = .88) and marginally higher for IV loop diuretics + IV nesiritide patients (n = 2,254; 2.2% vs 3.1%; P = .05). Compared with paired IV loop diuretics patients, IV loop diuretics + IV nitrates or IV nesiritide had longer lengths of stay (+1.6 and +2.1 days; P < .01) and 57% higher costs (P < .01).

CONCLUSIONS:

Among hospitalized AHF patients, the addition of IV vasodilators to IV loop diuretics did not lower inpatient mortality or rehospitalization rates compared with loop diuretics alone, and was associated with longer lengths of stay and higher hospitalization costs. Although the lack of complete clinical, socioeconomic, and post-discharge data may have confounded these results, this analysis questions whether currently available IV vasodilators can improve outcomes in hospitalized AHF patients.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Acute heart failure; claims data; hospital length of stay; hospitalization costs; nitrates
PMID:
 
25152497
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Elsevier Science
27.
 2014 Sep;3(5):459-61. doi: 10.2217/cer.14.49.

From mechanism to empiricism: the evolution of heterogeneity of treatment effects.

KEYWORDS:

heterogeneity of treatment effect; individualization of drug therapy; personalized medicine; sub-group analysis
PMID:
 
25350797
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Atypon
28.
 2014 Dec;14(6):843-56. doi: 10.1586/14737167.2014.953934. Epub 2014 Sep 2.

Methodological developments in randomized controlled trial-based economic evaluations.

Abstract

Economic evaluation is a key contributor to decision making in health care, and it is important that it is carried out as effectively and reliably as possible. Studies carried out alongside randomised controlled trials are required to contribute real-world evidence to the decision-making process. However, the requirement that resource use be measured as well as effectiveness data within a trial results in additional complexity for trialists, and there are a number of methodological areas in which improvement is needed. This article reviews the literature in methodological work carried out to inform economic evaluation studies conducted alongside randomised controlled trials. Recent advances in areas including overall trial design, measuring resource use, measuring outcomes and reporting economic evaluations are discussed.

KEYWORDS:

EQ-5D; clinical trial; cost; economic evaluation; health-related quality of life; randomised controlled trial; resource-use measurement; utility measurement
PMID:
 
25179207
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Informa Healthcare
29.
 2014 Nov;31(11):1119-33. doi: 10.1007/s12325-014-0166-0. Epub 2014 Nov 19.

Retrospective study of adherence to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in the United States.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION:

Greater adherence to medications has been broadly demonstrated to be associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, there is limited real-world evidence on adherence to glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1RA) therapy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

METHODS:

This retrospective cohort study used United States administrative claims data to compare adherence to GLP-1RAs in T2DM patients initiating exenatide once weekly (QW), exenatide twice daily (BID), or once-daily liraglutide (initiated therapy = index therapy). Patients were included if they had T2DM, were GLP-1RA-naïve, initiated a GLP-1RA from 02/01/2012-01/31/2013 (date of initiation = index), were ≥18 years at index, and had continuous enrollment for 12 months before (baseline) to 6 months after index (follow-up). Study outcome was index GLP-1RA adherence (proportion of days covered [PDC] during follow-up, dichotomized at ≥80% vs. <80%, and at ≥90% vs. <90%). Multivariable logistic regressions compared adherence between the GLP-1RAs, adjusting for potential confounders. Sensitivity analyses were performed separating liraglutide by dose (1.2 mg/1.8 mg).

RESULTS:

Study sample included 4,041 exenatide QW, 4,586 exenatide BID, and 14,211 liraglutide (6,641 1.2 mg, 7,570 1.8 mg) patients. Median unadjusted PDC values were 0.783 for exenatide QW, 0.500 exenatide BID, 0.722 liraglutide, 0.761 liraglutide 1.2 mg, and 0.683 liraglutide 1.8 mg. Compared with patients treated with either exenatide BID or liraglutide, patients treated with exenatide QW had a statistically significantly greater multivariable-adjusted odds of achieving adherence of ≥80% (odds ratio vs. exenatide QW (OR) = 0.41 for exenatide BID; 0.80, liraglutide; 0.87, liraglutide 1.2 mg; 0.75, liraglutide 1.8 mg) and ≥90% (OR = 0.31 for exenatide BID; 0.60 liraglutide; 0.66 liraglutide 1.2 mg; 0.56 liraglutide 1.8 mg) (all P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Patients initiating exenatide QW had significantly higher adjusted odds of adherence compared with patients initiating other GLP-1RAs. Given differences in adherence across the GLP-1RAs, research correlating these factors with clinical and economic outcomes is warranted.
PMID:
 
25408484
 
[PubMed - in process]
Icon for Springer
30.
 2014 Nov 22. pii: S0168-8510(14)00309-1. doi: 10.1016/j.healthpol.2014.11.010. [Epub ahead of print]

Experience with outcomes research into the real-world effectiveness of novel therapies in Dutch daily practice from the context of conditional reimbursement.

Abstract

Policymakers more often request outcomes research for expensive therapies to help resolve uncertainty of their health benefits and budget impact at reimbursement. Given the limitations of observational data, we assessed its usefulness in evaluating clinical outcomes for bortezomib in advanced multiple myeloma patients. Data were retrospectively collected from patients included in the pivotal Assessment of Proteasome Inhibition for Extending Remissions trial (APEX; n=333) and two groups of daily practice patients treated with bortezomib following progression from upfront therapy (n=201): real-world patients treated as of May 2009 (RW-1; n=72) and June 2012 (RW-2; n=129). Prognosis, treatment, and effectiveness were compared. Outcomes research was useful for policymakers for addressing to whom and how bortezomib was administered in daily practice. It was limited however in generating robust evidence on real-world safety and effectiveness. The quality of real-world evidence on effectiveness was low due to missing data in patient charts, existing treatment variation and the dynamics in care during the novel drug's initial market uptake period. Policymakers requesting real-world evidence on clinical outcomes for reimbursement decisions should be aware of these limitations and advised to carefully consider beforehand the type of evidence that best addresses their needs for the re-assessment phase.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

Conditional reimbursement; Daily practice; Effectiveness; Observational; Outcomes research
PMID:
 
25476554
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher]
Icon for Elsevier Science
31.
 2014 Dec 10;9(12):e114264. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0114264. eCollection 2014.

Comparative Effectiveness of Second-Line Targeted Therapies for Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Real-World Observational Studies.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The optimal sequencing of targeted therapies for metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) is unknown. Observational studies with a variety of designs have reported differing results. The objective of this study is to systematically summarize and interpret the published real-world evidence comparing sequential treatment for mRCC.

METHODS:

A search was conducted in Medline and Embase (2009-2013), and conference proceedings from American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), ASCO Genitourinary Cancers Symposium (ASCO-GU), and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) (2011-2013). We systematically reviewed observational studies comparing second-line mRCC treatment with mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) versus vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Studies were evaluated for 1) use of a retrospective cohort design after initiation of second-line therapy, 2) adjustment for patient characteristics, and 3) use of data from multiple centers. Meta-analyses were conducted for comparisons of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS).

RESULTS:

Ten studies reported OS and exhibited significant heterogeneity in estimated second-line treatment effects (I2 = 68%; P = 0.001). Four of these were adjusted, multicenter, retrospective cohort studies, and these showed no evidence of heterogeneity (I2 = 0%; P = 0.61) and a significant association between second-line mTORi (>75% everolimus) and longer OS compared to VEGF TKI (>60% sorafenib) (HR = 0.82, 95% CI: 0.68 to 0.98) in a meta-analysis. Seven studies comparing PFS showed significant heterogeneity overall and among the adjusted, multicenter, retrospective cohort studies. Real-world observational data for axitinib outcomes was limited at the time of this study.

CONCLUSIONS:

Real-world studies employed different designs and reported heterogeneous results comparing the effectiveness of second-line mTORi and VEGF TKI in the treatment of mRCC. Within the subset of adjusted, multicenter observational studies, second-line use of mTORi was associated with significantly prolonged survival compared with second-line use of VEGF TKI.
PMID:
 
25493562
 
[PubMed - as supplied by publisher] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4262396
 
Free PMC Article
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32.
 2015 Jan;21(1):23-34.

Utilizing data consortia to monitor safety and effectiveness of biosimilars and their innovator products.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act, introduced as part of the Affordable Care Act, directed the FDA to create an approval pathway for biologic products shown to be biosimilar or interchangeable with an FDA-approved innovator drug. These biosimilars will not be chemically identical to the reference agent. Investigational studies conducted with biosimilar agents will likely provide limited real-world evidence of their effectiveness and safety. How do we best monitor effectiveness and safety of biosimilar products once approved by the FDA and used more extensively by patients?  

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the feasibility of developing a distributed research network that will use health insurance plan and health delivery system data to detect biosimilar safety and effectiveness signals early and be able to answer important managed care pharmacy questions from both the government and managed care organizations. 

METHODS:

Twenty-one members of the AMCP Task Force on Biosimilar Collective Intelligence Systems met November 12, 2013, to discuss issues involved in designing this consortium and to explore next steps. 

RESULTS:

The task force concluded that a managed care biosimilars research consortium would be of significant value. Task force members agreed that it is best to use a distributed research network structurally similar to existing DARTNet, HMO Research Network, and Mini-Sentinel consortia. However, for some surveillance projects that it undertakes, the task force recognizes it may need supplemental data from managed care and other sources (i.e., a "hybrid" structure model). 

CONCLUSIONS:

The task force believes that AMCP is well positioned to lead the biosimilar-monitoring effort and that the next step to developing a biosimilar-innovator collective intelligence system is to convene an advisory council to address organizational governance.
PMID:
 
25562770
 
[PubMed - in process] 
Free full text
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33.
 2015 Jan 19;11:177-83. doi: 10.2147/NDT.S73992. eCollection 2015.

Correlation between changes in quality of life and symptomatic improvement in Chinese patients switched from typical antipsychotics to olanzapine.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between changes in symptoms and changes in self-reported quality of life among Chinese patients with schizophrenia who were switched from a typical antipsychotic to olanzapine during usual outpatient care.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

This post hoc analysis was conducted using data from the Chinese subgroup (n=475) of a multicountry, 12-month, prospective, noninterventional, observational study. The primary publication previously reported the efficacy, safety, and quality of life among patients who switched from a typical antipsychotic to olanzapine. Patients with schizophrenia were included if their symptoms were inadequately controlled with a typical antipsychotic and they were switched to olanzapine. Symptom severity was measured using the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Clinical Global Impressions-Severity scale (CGI-S). Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQOL) was assessed using the World Health Organization Quality of Life-Abbreviated (WHOQOL-BREF). Paired t-tests were performed to assess changes from baseline to endpoint. Pearson's correlation coefficients (r) were used to assess the correlations between change in symptoms (BPRS and CGI-S scores) and change in HRQOL (WHOQOL-BREF scores).

RESULTS:

Symptoms and HRQOL both improved significantly over the 12 months of treatment (P<0.001). Significant correlations were observed between changes from baseline to end of study on the BPRS and the CGI-S and each of the WHOQOL-BREF four domain scores and two overall quality-of-life questions. The correlation coefficients ranged from r=-0.45 to r=-0.53 for the BPRS and WHOQOL-BREF. The correlation coefficients were slightly smaller between the CGI-S and WHOQOL-BREF, ranging from r=-0.33 to r=-0.40.

CONCLUSION:

For patients with schizophrenia, assessing quality of life has the potential to add valuable information to the clinical assessment that takes into account the patient's own perspective of well-being.

KEYWORDS:

data correlation; olanzapine; quality of life; schizophrenia; signs and symptoms
PMID:
 
25632235
 
[PubMed] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4304595
 
Free PMC Article
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34.
 2014 Dec 12;14:940. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-14-940.

Clinical effectiveness and clinical toxicity associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer in Chinese patients: a retrospective cohort study.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Real-world evidence lacks for clinical effectiveness and clinical toxicity associated with platinum-based doublets in the first-line setting for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (advNS-NSCLC) in Chinese patients.

METHODS:

Patients receiving first-line chemotherapy for advNS-NSCLC in four Chinese tertiary care hospitals from 2007 to 2012 were retrospectively identified for chart review. Propensity score methods created best matched pairs for platinum/pemetrexed versus other platinum-based doublets for head-to-head comparisons of early treatment discontinuation (completed treatment cycles <4), treatment failure (progressive disease or early treatment discontinuation), and adverse events (AE). Conventional multiple logistic regression analyses were also performed to confirm the impact of the studied platinum-based doublets on early treatment discontinuation, treatment failure, and hematological AE using vinorelbine/platinum as reference.

RESULTS:

1,846 patients were included to create propensity score matched treatment groups for platinum/pemetrexed versus docetaxel (95 pairs), paclitaxel (118 pairs), gemcitabine (199 pairs), and vinorelbine (72 pairs)-contained doublet, respectively. Platinum/pemetrexed was associated with significantly lower risks of early treatment discontinuation (odds ratio (OR) ranged from 0.239, p = 0.001 relative to platinum/docetaxel to 0.389, p = 0.003 relative to platinum/paclitaxel) and treatment failure (OR ranged from 0.257, p < 0.001 relative to platinum/paclitaxel to 0.381, p < 0.001 relative to platinum/gemcitabine) than the other four studied doublets. Platinum/pemetrexed was also associated with several significantly lower hematological AE rates, such as versus platinum/paclitaxel (any hematological AE: OR 0.508, p = 0.032), platinum/gemcitabine (i.e., any hematological AE: OR 0.383, p < 0.001; anemia: OR 0.357, p < 0.001; thrombocytopenia: OR 0.345, p < 0.001) or platinum/vinorelbine (i.e., neutropenia: OR 0.360, p = 0.046; anemia: OR 0.181, p = 0.014) in matched patients. Further conventional logistic regression analyses indicated that pemetrexed/platinum was ranked lowest for the risks of early treatment discontinuation (OR 0.326, p < 0.001), treatment failure (OR 0.460, p < 0.001), and any hematological AE (OR 0.329, p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS:

Pemetrexed plus platinum had significantly superior clinical effectiveness as compared to the other platinum-based doublets with third-generation cytotoxic agents and was also associated with several lower hematological toxicity rates than gemcitabine or vinorelbine-based doublet in the first-line setting for advNS-NSCLC in Chinese patients.
PMID:
 
25495098
 
[PubMed - in process] 
PMCID:
 
PMC4295576
 
Free PMC Article

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